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Anorexia, or self-starvation, is a disease and it can be fatal if left untreated. Recognition of its symptoms can be the first step
toward saving yourself or someone you love from this dangerous disease.
The following is a list of the observable symptoms:
•Refusal to maintain body weight
•Fear of gaining weight
•Talks about “feeling fat”
•Difficulty with eating full meals
•Rigidity with what they will eat
•An obsessive preoccupation with body size
•Over-exercising
•Intense dissatisfaction with physical appearance
•Personality change from outgoing to withdrawn
•Limit food intake to “arrow selection of low-Cal foods
•Hoarding, concealing, crumbling or throwing away food
•Menstrual difficulties
Behavioral Characteristics.
Anorexic patients see their restricted caloric intake as a very brave and arduous thing to do. They tend to prize challenges over
comfort. By contrast, bulimic patients view their behaviors as shameful and disgusting. In order to recover, patients need help
learning to understand the connection between their beliefs about themselves and their eating disorder behaviors. They often
view themselves with such hatred that they feel deserving of the painful eating disorder behavior. They need to see that their
eating disordered behavior is not an achievement, hut avoidance of true life challenges; not distinctive, hut simply stereotypic.
They need to realize their behavior does not clarify their life, but confuses it; and they need to see that the disorder does not
serve higher goals, but actually blocks the realization of those goals. The individual suffering from destructive eating disorder
behavior must begin to challenge a negative mindset and learn to create and allow positive feelings and thoughts about
themselves.
Anorexia Nervosa
Bingeing and Food Control Excessive dieting, food control, and fasting. Collects recipes, and likes to cook/bake, but sometimes
refuses to eat with family. Tension at mealtime, Fear of food; avoidance of consumption.
Purging Compulsive exercising. Fasting
Eating Behavior Food ritual; calorie counting, rigid rules and schedules.
Sleeping Behavior Insomnia and early morning awakening.
Clothing and Dressing Rituals Frequent weighing, layering of clothes.
Social Behavior Social withdrawal, physically and emotionally. Focus on job and or school work.
Abusive Behavior Slow suicidal progression. Self hatred and feeling of unworthiness
Emotional and Cognitive Characteristics
Individuals suffering from eating disorders have restricted emotions and often cannot identify their feelings. What they are
aware of is extremely negative thoughts related to their body – an effective diversion from their emotional turmoil and pain.
Their thoughts are obsessively locked onto the Irrelevant and their feelings are avoided and hidden, even from themselves.
Anorexia Nervosa
Body Image Problems Intense fear of becoming fat. Distorted body image.
Perfectionist Behavior Perfectionist: thinnest, smartest, neatest. Dichotomous thinking: all or nothing, black or white.
Self-Esteem Depression and low sense of self-worth.
Sexuality Decreased interest in sex.
Social Behavior Self-centered and non-social, isolation from others, irritable.
Cognitive Symptoms Difficulty thinking clearly, potential severe cognitive deficits due to malnourishment.
Adapted from Mary Pabst, MSW, Maryland Association for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia (MANA) from Panhellenic Task Force

Anorexia Linked To Pleasure-Regulating Brain Chemical
Women who suffer from anorexia have increased chemical activity in a part of the brain that controls reward and
reinforcement, something that may explain why they are driven to lose weight but don’t get any pleasure from it, according to a
new study. Researchers used brain-imaging technology on 10 women who had recovered from anorexia and 12 healthy
women. In the anorexic women, they found overactivity by dopamine receptors in a part of the brain known as the basal ganglia.
Dopamine is a brain chemical that is associated with regulating pleasure. “The take-home message is dopamine in this area
may be very important in how we respond to stimuli, how we view positive and negative reinforcement,” said Dr. Walter Kaye, a
psychiatry professor at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and one of the researchers involved in the study. Dr. Guido
Frank, a child psychiatry fellow at the University of California at San Diego and also a leader of the study, said the hope is that
the research can lead to the development of drugs to treat anorexia. “It’s very, very hard to treat. They recognize it’s wrong, but
they still don’t eat,” Frank said. The research was reported this month online in the journal Biological Psychiatry. About 1
percent of American women suffer from anorexia, a disease than can also affect men. It has the highest death rate of any
psychiatric illness, Kaye said. Women suffering from anorexia have obsessional personalities, avoid harm and prefer routine,
said Dr. Douglas Bunnell, past president of the National Eating Disorders Association and clinical director of the Renfrew Center
of Connecticut. These women tend to resist therapy and have a distorted perception of themselves, he said. Although only a
small number of women get anorexia in its purest form, there are many more people who suffer from some form of an eating
disorder, Bunnell said. Making the connection between anorexia and what’s happening in the brain is important for
understanding and treating eating disorders, he said.
“There’s still considerable stigma attached to these disorders, particularly for families. People think it reflects something you
did as a parent,” Bunnell said.
Dr. Craig Johnson, director of the eating disorders program at Laureate Psychiatric Hospital in Tulsa, Okla., said anorexia was
historically viewed as a disease brought on by its victims or just a diet gone bad. “Up until this point we have been left with more
sociocultural explanations for the illness and regretfully that has resulted in some levels of minimization, if not glamorization, of
the illnesses,” Johnson said. Though the ultimate goal from the latest study would be to develop treatments for anorexia, the
work may also provide data important in anorexia prevention and identifying people at risk of developing the disease, Johnson
said. Frank said researchers still don’t know what is causing the dopamine receptor to be overactive, but more research may
provide an answer.
Behavioral Characteristics.
Bulimia Nervosa
Bingeing and Food Control Eating, in a discrete period of time (e.g. within any 2 hour period), an amount of food that is definitely
larger than most people would eat during a similar period of time and under similar circumstances. Fear of inability to stop
eating voluntarily (bingeing), a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating.
Purging Compulsive exercising. Vomiting, laxative, diuretic, or diet pill abuse; or use of other emetics ( syrup of ipecac).
Eating Behavior Secretive food foraging and hoarding, especially at night. Shoplifting and or petty stealing of money to buy binge
food.
Sleeping Behavior Various sleep disturbances
Clothing and Dressing Rituals Other obsessive-compulsive patterns, such as trying on clothes five times a day.
Social Behavior Social irregularities, alternating withdrawal with erratic need for social contact and approval. Chaotic
relationships and interaction.
Abusive Behavior Drug and/or alcohol abuse. Suicidal gestures or attempts. Self-hatred and self-mutilation. Feelings of self-
disgust.
Emotional and Cognitive Characteristics
Individuals suffering from eating disorders have restricted emotions and often cannot identify their feelings. What they are
aware of is extremely negative thoughts related to their body – an effective diversion from their emotional turmoil and pain.
Their thoughts are obsessively locked onto the Irrelevant and their feelings are avoided and hidden, even from themselves.
Bulimia Nervosa
Body Image Problems Preoccupation with appearance and “image”.
Perfectionist Behavior Perfectionist: high performance and achievement expectations. Perfectionist inside, but sometimes
chaotic outside. Facade of normalcy, seemingly “got it together”.
Self-Esteem Low self-esteem: self-loathing, self disgust, and depression.
Sexuality May be promiscuous or confused about sexuality, a mask for a desire to he accepted and respected.
Social Behavior Constant feeling of being out of control; vacillates between isolation and extreme need for external validation.
Cognitive Symptoms Inability to accurately identify and express feelings. Out of touch with one’s feelings, (e.g. anger, affection,
humor). Thoughts obsessive and focused on the eating disorder cycle.
Adapted from Mary Pabst, MSW, Maryland Association for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia (MANA) from Panhellenic Task Force
Bulimia not always about looking thin
Freshman Jane Felton said she would purge to make herself feel better in comparison to other women, who made her feel
insufficient.
“I always thought I was chubby – chubbier than the rest of the girls in my class,” Felton said. “Most of the time I wouldn’t eat,
unless I was stressed out or I was really hungry. In those situations, I would just eat a lot of junk food, because that made me
feel sick quicker. Then I would run to the bathroom, stick my finger in my throat and throw it all up. I wanted to be pretty,” she
said.
According to Dr. Donald McAlpine, a psychiatrist and the director of the eating disorders services at the Mayo Clinic in
Rochester, Minn., bulimia, also referred to as bulimia nervosa, is a psychological eating disorder that involves repeated
episodes of overeating. This is followed by inappropriate ways of trying to rid the body of the food before weight gain occurs, he
said.
In most cases, the disorder is not solely about being thin. It can also become a way to “gain total control of some aspect of their
life,” Judy Blackstone, a UW-Eau Claire counselor said.
According to the National Eating Disorder Association, overwhelming lifestyles full of never-ending homework, significant other
pressures, difficult family relationships and additional stressing aspects are common causes for self-induced purging.
“None of the eating disorders are about food,” Blackstone said. “They’re about the way we feel about ourselves.”
Cases of bulimia may start in post-adolescence due to unattainable standards of American society and continues all
throughout college, she said.
The Spectator News
1.Tend to hide and bottle up feelings – especially anger
2.Hypersensitive to criticism, though have a critical spirit themselves
3.Shame to control self and others
4.Impulsive in thought and action
5.Has great difficulty with intimacy, both sexual and emotional
6.Obsession with weight, though tend not to be extremely overweight
7.Addicted to the scale
8.Tend to have very strong need for other’s approval, but feels as though they never get it
9.Very secretive, deal with very high amounts of guilt
10.Obsessive in thought about physical body
11.Believes that God disapproves of them
12.Tremendous physical exhaustion
13.PMS tendency, irregular periods
14.Dizziness, headaches, constant thirst
15.Digestive disturbances, extreme, bloated
16.Electrolyte imbalance resulting in muscular weakness
17.Dental problems
18.A life of extremes in relationships, spirituality, and emotions
19.Chronic low self-esteem
20.Disturbed metabolism.
What works in treatment?
1.Whole person approach
2.Non-diet approach
3.Self-esteem retraining
4.Nutritional reeducation
5.Spiritual renewal
6.Relationship enhancement
7.Identity development
Bulimia Symptoms
•95% to 98% female
•84% have some college education
•Usually white-this is changing
•64% are closer to proper weight
•On the average, binges occur 11 times per week
•Average number of calories consumed: 4,800
•Average age at onset: 18
•Estimated number of bulimic college women – 20-30%
•Very unhappy and have low self-esteem
•Often depressed
•Tend to be passive individuals
•Tend to rely on others, especially me” for self- validation
•Afraid of rejection
•Perfectionists
•Isolated
•Very secretive
•Unsure how to cope with stresses of life
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Depending on what country you live in, you will find nutrition data listed in calories,
kilojoules, or both. When we expend energy it is said that we are burning calories, and
when we burn more calories than we eat our bodies turn to our fat stores to find the
additional energy they require. Thus when we eat more calories than we burn we gain
weight, and when we burn more calories than we eat we lose weight.

Eat more calories than you burn and you will gain weight; eat fewer calories than you
burn and you will lose weight.

Calories are also used to measure the energy required to perform different activities,
including the energy required just to keep our bodies running. It is therefore possible
to calculate how many calories you burn in a day, which equates to the number you
would eat to maintain your current weight.

If you want to lose weight, you can use the Weight Loss Calculator to calculate how
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calories eaten – calories burned = calorie deficit

Once you determine the calorie deficit you’d like to achieve, you can use the Food
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A calorie is a unit of measure of the energy required to raise the temperature of 1
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physical sciences, equal to the work done when a current of one ampere is passed
through a resistance of one ohm for one second. Of course we don’t use energy to
raise the temperature of water or pass current through a resistance, but similar
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Because calories and joules are so small, when referring to food and energy
expenditure it has become common practice to refer to them in multiples of 1,000. The
term for 1,000 calories is kilocalories or kcal, and the term for 1,000 joules is kilojoules
or kJ.

1 calorie = 4.184 joules

1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.184 kilojoules (kJ)

In the scientific and educational communities, it is also common practice to refer to
kilocalories as Calories (with an uppercase “c”). However, outside these communities,
it has become common practice to simply refer to kilocalories as calories. Therefore
when you read 500 calories on a food label it actually means 500 kilocalories, and the
same holds true when you calculate an activity that burns 500 calories.

So how to BURN THOSE CALORIES INTO A POUND LOSS!! Let me break it down…
Unit of Weight Approximate Calories Approximate Kilojoules
Pound 3,500 14,644
Kilogram 7,716 32,284

A pound of body fat equates to approximately 3500 calories. So if you have a calorie
deficit of 500 calories (meaning that you burn 500 calories more than you eat each day)
you would lose approximately one pound per week:

500 x 7 = 3,500

It’s easy to see that a calorie deficit of 1000 calories would mean that you’d lose
approximately two pounds per week. And that’s a good number to remember, because
two pounds a week is commonly accepted as the maximum rate of weight loss that is
healthy.
Calories in Protein, Fat and Carbohydrates, it is commonly said that a gram of fat
contains 9 calories. But there are 454 grams in a pound, and 9 x 454 = 4086 calories,
not 3500.

The reason for the discrepancy is that body fat, or adipose tissue, contains not only
fat, but also other substances including protein, connective tissue, and water. The
dietary fat referred to in the nutritional analysis of food is pure.

Looking at it another way, 3,500 / 454 = 7.7 calories. Thus a gram of body fat contains
only 7.7 calories versus the 9 calories found in pure fat. It’s easy to see that there
should be a difference when you consider that body fat contains water, which has no
calories.

Because of the differences in the two types of fat, it is appropriate to use the 3500
calories per pound figure when discussing fat “burned” by activity, and the 9 calories
per gram figure when discussing the nutritional content of food.

The goal of your diet and weight loss plan should not be to lose weight, but to lose
body fat.

Exercise, in particular weight bearing exercise that builds muscle, will help prevent
muscle loss and keep your metabolism from slowing. It’s also necessary to eat
nutritious, well-balanced meals in order to maintain muscle and support all the bodily
functions necessary for weight loss.

To lose weight, you need to create a calorie deficit. This simply means that you need to
eat fewer calories than you burn. In his book Burn the Fat, Feed the Muscle, Tom
Venuto suggest a calorie deficit of 15-20%. This should be small enough to avoid the
starvation response and any significant muscle loss.

For example, if you are currently eating 2500 calories a day, or if you calculate that to
be the amount required to maintain your current weight, you could create a calorie
deficit of 15% by eating 375 fewer calories a day. Or you could burn 375 more calories a
day, or combine eating less with burning more to achieve the 375 calorie deficit.

2500 x .15 = 375

It is important to understand that the results of the calculators are only estimates. They
are only intended to give you a place to start. Over time you will learn how your body
reacts to the changes you make, and you will make the necessary adjustments to reach
your goals. check out these stats for calories burned during activities..
click here.

Remember that as you lose weight and activity becomes easier, you will burn fewer
calories performing the same activities. Because of this, it will be necessary to eat
less and/or become more active if you wish to maintain the same daily calorie deficit
and rate of weight loss.

The Low Carb Weight Loss Method
There are two basic types of low carbohydrate diets. (1) Extremely low carb, like Atkins
Diet, or (2) More moderate low carb, like my own low carbohydrate plan, or the South
Beach or Zone Diets. All low carb weight loss programs tend to have a restrictive
phase to begin with to boost initial fat loss, followed by a phase which permits more
carbohydrate foods – lasting until you reach your weight reduction goal. There is
sometimes a weight maintenance plan to follow for life.

The New GI Diet Method
This new approach to weight loss is founded on the Glycemic Index (GI), which
assesses carbohydrate in foods according to its immediate effect on our blood
glucose. A GI Diet is based on eating foods with a lower-GI value – meaning foods that
have a slow moderate effect on blood glucose. According to most nutritionists and
dietitians, the GI diet method offers all the benefits of the low carb approach without
the long term health and nutritional concerns. My own Low GI Diet is delicious and
offers effective healthy weight loss.

Health and Nutrition is Important Too
Approximately 23 minerals and vitamins are needed for optimum metabolic function
and weight reduction. So a healthy calorie-controlled diet is much more likely to lead to
weight reduction than an unhealthy diet containing the same calories.

Non-Nutritious Refined Foods More Likely to be Stored as Fat
Foods cannot be metabolised properly without minerals and vitamins. The energy that
empty calorie foods (foods contain calories but little if any nutrition) contain, becomes
unavailable to our body and is stored as fat until (or in the hope that) we get the
necessary minerals and vitamins at some later time. In the meantime we feel hungry
and eat more. This too turns into fat unless minerals and vitamins are also provided.

We Absorb More Calories From Refined Foods
Because they lack fiber and bulk, refined foods slow down intestinal activity. They take
up to five times longer to pass through the intestinal tract than do natural unrefined
high fiber foods (75 hours compared to 15) and the body absorbs calories during the
entire time of their constipated passage.

Whatever Diet Method You Choose
Regardless of which weight loss diet you prefer, ask yourself the following questions:

– Is it a balanced diet based exclusively on healthy food?
– Does it teach me how to eat right?
– Does it recommend exercise and give me advice about what to do?
– Does it offer motivation tips to help me lose weight?
– Does it offer help and support to overcome typical dieting problems?

If the answer to all of these questions is yes, then the diet is likely to work for you. My
weight loss program is a perfect example of a healthy eating plan with tons of exercise,
motivation and weight loss advice.

WANT TO LOSE THOSE LAST 10LBS?
Be Patient
The key to losing those last stubborn pounds is to be patient! When you have very little
weight to lose it is important to stick very closely to your diet in order get results. Think
in terms of losing AT MOST 1-1.5 pound a week. This means following your diet and
exercise program carefully for 7-10 weeks. If you do this, even the most stubborn final
pounds of fat will disappear.

Boost Your Daily Exercise
If you take regular exercise, increase your workout by 10-15 minutes each day AND
change your workout routine. Changing the type of exercise you do, or the duration,
gives your metabolism an extra boost and helps to burn extra calories.

Eat Regularly
Eat little and often throughout the day. This helps to maintain your metabolic rate at
maximum speed. Also, it keeps your blood-sugar level stable, which is helpful in
reducing appetite build-up and food cravings. Some surveys show that eating “little
and often” actually reduces appetite and calorie-intake.

Think Thin!
This may sound like psycho-babble, but it’s not! Our beliefs really do affect how we
behave. If you believe “I can never lose my final 10 pounds”, chances are you won’t.
This is because we behave in a way that makes our belief a reality. However, if you
think “Seven weeks from now my last 10 pounds are gonna be history” you will work to
make that belief a reality.

IF YOU WANT THE WEIGHT TO COME OFF FASTER TRY THIS… I AM TELLING YOU THIS IS
THE BEST THING FOR THOSE LAST 10LBS TO COME OFF FAST,
CLICK HERE.

What Causes a Fat Belly?
Where we store fat (surplus calories) is largely a combination of gender, age and genetic inheritance.
Men tend to store fat around their middle (apple shape), whereas women typically store fat around the
pelvic region, hips, butt and thighs (pear shape).

However, women are prone to develop an apple shape in mid-life, after menopause. This is because
the female hormones are present in smaller amounts and so their shape tends to become more ‘male’.

Stress and Stomach Fat
Some health studies show that abdominal fat can develop as a result of stress. This is because the
hormone cortisol is released during stress, and a high level of cortisol in the body appears to
stimulate the storage of fat around the belly and abdomen. Researchers at Yale University studied 60
women and found that the more stress they were under, the more fat they stored around their
stomachs. So it appears that a fat belly is most likely to develop in stressed men of any age, and older
stressed women.
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE ABOUT THAT.

How to Prevent a Fat Belly?
If you are prone to store fat around your middle, the healthiest solution is to maintain a normal weight.
By matching your calorie intake to your calorie needs and prevent weight gain, you will prevent the
development of any excess fat.

How to Reduce a Fat Stomach?
However, if you already have a fat belly, the best option is to follow a healthy weight loss diet,
combined with fitness exercises such as aerobics (to burn extra calories) and a stomach-toning
workout to help tighten and strengthen abdominal muscles. That said, reducing a fat stomach takes
time – especially if you are an apple-shape. Despite what commercials say, there is no diet-plan or type
of exercise that can “target” your fat stomach. So please don’t get impatient. Your fat belly will
disappear, I promise.
CLICK HERE FOR MORE FLAT BELLY TIPS.

Different Types of Exercise Benefit Calorie Expenditure
There are two basic types of exercise: aerobic and anaerobic.

The word aerobic means “with oxygen”. Aerobic exercise refers to physical workouts that require
oxygen to be delivered to the muscles (via the lungs and blood supply) over an extended period.
Aerobic activities (eg. walking, jogging, swimming, jumping rope, roller-blading, rowing and general
sports like football and tennis) are typically sustained for a period of time, rather than short bursts of
effort. Aerobic training is often called “cardio” exercise because it strengthens the cardiovascular
(heart) and respiratory (lungs) systems

The word anaerobic means “without oxygen”. Anaerobic exercise refers to fitness routines (eg. lifting
weights) that don’t rely on oxygen for fuel. Anaerobic workouts typically involve short bursts of
energy, which are powered by non-oxygen fuel sources such as adenosine triphosphate and
glycogen stored in the muscles.

Which Exercise is Best to Burn Extra Calories?
The best type of activity for “instant” calorie-burning is aerobic training. The best type of activity to
raise metabolic rate and increase “longer-term calorie expenditure” is anaerobic training, like
weight-lifting.

Combine Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise
The ideal calorie-burning training program involves a combination of both these types of exercises.
Ideally get advice from a fitness professional as to how to structure your program. As a rough guide,
if doing a 60-minute workout at a fitness center or using a home gym, divide your program into
approximately 40 minutes cardio and 20 minutes weight-training, or do aerobics one day and weights
the next.

What to Eat Before Exercising
Always eat 3-4 hours before exercise. Your best choice is a high-carbohydrate, low-fat meal, with
foods like breakfast cereal, fruit, yogurt, fruit juice, bread, pasta and rice. Avoid fried food and other
high-fat options. These low-fat, carbohydrate-rich foods give you the necessary energy to enable you
to exercise for up to one hour at a time, and help to optimize fat-burning.

Sports Drinks Can Be High Calorie
Some athletes drink a sports drink during their training, but be aware that these drinks typically have
a high calorie-content and are not required unless you are exercising vigorously for more than one
hour at a time. Drink water instead.

What to Eat After Exercising
After exercise, refuel your energy stores with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat meal again. People
sometimes say they don’t feel like eating after exercise. That’s fine, but you should not exercise again
within 12 hours unless you have replenished your energy stores with sufficient carbohydrate. If you
don’t recharge your energy stocks correctly, you will end up too tired to do any exercise at all. So
keep eating and drinking, but choose high-carbohydrate foods and plenty of water.

Hunger Drives Us to Eat High Calorie Junk Food
When hunger becomes unbearable, we typically reach for all the wrong foods. I mean, who eats an
orange to beat off serious hunger pangs? Not many of us! Mostly we reach for cookies, cakes, popcorn
or anything that gives us an “instant hit”. Unfortunately these foods simply make the problem worse. Not
only because of their high calorie-content, but also because they play havoc with our blood glucose
levels which can lead to cravings, mood and appetite swings.

You Don’t Need to Go Hungry to Lose Weight
People often think that food causes weight gain. So they think if they eat less food they will lose more
weight. This is not true. Successful weight loss doesn’t mean eating LESS, it means eating DIFFERENTLY.

For example, some high-calorie foods (like cookies, candy, cakes, rich ice cream) are easily eaten even
when we are relatively full. Their high-fat and high-sugar content makes them easily digestible. Result?
It’s easy to ingest 300 calories in a matter of minutes.

1 oz (25g) of butter (almost pure fat) contains more calories than 10 oz (275g) of potatoes (which are
mostly digestible carbohydrates, fiber and water). Now 10 oz (275g) of potatoes is really quite a large
helping. But an ounce of butter can be eaten in an instant, melted on half a potato, without even batting
an eyelid.
A whole pound of apples contains the same number of calories as a couple of candies. The difference
is, very few people can eat a pound of apples: they are simply too filling.
So the message is simple, instead of going hungry, cut down on calorie-dense foods (usually
fatty-sugary foods) and eat more lower-calorie or lighter foods, especially those rich in dietary fiber.

Hunger Screws Up Our Metabolic Rate
Our metabolism governs the rate at which we burn calories. Although it is largely inherited, we can raise
it slightly, thereby burning calories faster. One way to raise your metabolic rate is to eat little and often.
This, it is believed, helps to reassure the brain that food sources are plentiful, which in turn encourages
it to burn calories. By starving yourself or going hungry, the opposite occurs – the brain thinks there is a
food shortage and will (if hunger persists) slow things down and burn fewer calories. This is why
starvation diets or prolonged fasts rarely lead to long term weight loss. Instead, they make us miserable
and convince us that dieting is torture!

The Bottom Line
Hunger is a diet-killer. Avoid it all costs. The best way to do this, is to eat little and often. For optimum
weight control, choose lower-fat, lower sugar foods that include plenty of fiber. These foods fill up your
stomach without expanding your waistline. Most important of all, by avoiding hunger it’s much easier to
stay happy and maintain your motivation to lose weight.

CLICK HERE ON HOW TO TIPS…

•A one hour workout is just 4% of you day.
•You’ve got what it takes but it’ll take everything you’ve got.
•Rule your appetite or it will rule you.
•If you can imagine it, you can achieve it.  If you dream it, you can become it.  Discipline is the bridge
between goals and accomplishments.
•No matter how slow you go, you are still lapping everyone on the couch.
•Because the next 6 months will go by whether you workout or not.
•Fat lasts longer than flavor.
•You will regret that cookie but you will not regret running that mile!
•The secret of success is the consistency to pursue.
•You aren’t defeated when you lose, your only defeated when you quit!
•Success is not a place that we aspire to, it is a process in which we live by. Often the only ingredient
being the ability to not quit.
•Remeasure, reweigh, try harder.
•Motivation is what gets you started. Habit is what keeps you going.
•Exercise may be bitter to endure but once you’ve lost the weight it will be sweet to remember.
•Some people dream about success… while others wake up and work hard at it.
•You will come to realize that what appears today to be a sacrifice will prove instead to be the
greatest investment you ever made.
•Of course it’s hard. If it was easy then everybody would do it. The hard work you have to do will make
you special.
•If hunger is not the problem, then eating is not the solution.
MORE THINSPO QUOTES,
CLICK HERE,.

SO ONCE YOU TAKE CALORIES IN Where Do We Digest Our Food?
The digestion of food in humans takes place in the gastrointestinal tract – a series of hollow organs
(mouth, esophagus, stomach, large and small intestines) connected to form a long tube of about 24 feet
in length which extends from the mouth to the anus. It is also referred to as the GI Tract, the alimentary
canal, the digestive tract, or the gut.

Above the large intestine, the digestive system is sometimes called the upper gastrointestinal tract,
while everything below is the lower gastrointestinal tract. The tract has muscular walls that propel food
along the tube (a process called peristalsis) breaking it down and mixing it with digestive juices for
optimum absorption.

The Functions Of The Digestive Tract
The gastrointestinal tract has four main functions. It ingests the food we eat; it breaks it down into
simple chemical components for energy and nutritional purposes; it extracts nutrients from it (eg.
macronutrients such as carbs, fats, proteins; as well as micronutrients like vitamins and minerals); and
finally it expels the remaining food waste.

How Food Passes Through The Digestive Tract
During eating, food passes from the mouth into the
esophagus, then into the stomach from where it enters
the small intestine (comprising the duodenum, jejunum
and ileum). Most if not all nutrients are absorbed in the
stomach and small intestine. The remaining water and
waste products then pass into the large intestine
(comprising the cecum, colon and rectum) from where
it leaves the body via the anus. Other organs which
contribute to healthy digestion include the liver, the
pancreas and the gallbladder. A number of important
digestive hormones and digestive enzymes help to
regulate digestion, especially in the the upper
gastrointestinal tract. The movement of food through
the main digestive tubes (esophagus, small intestine
and large intestine) is maintained by a series of
muscular contractions called peristalsis. Several
muscular valves control the passage of food and
prevent it from moving backwards. On average, it takes
about 40-45 hours for food remnants to pass through
the entire digestive tract.

The Mouth

Digestion starts in the mouth – the beginning of the digestive tract. Food smells cause the salivary
glands in the mouth to secrete saliva (“mouth-watering”), so even before we start eating our digestive
system is primed and ready for action!

Saliva contains antibacterial compounds and various enzymes to aid the breakdown of food molecules.
It also softens the food – enabling the tongue to mould it into a bolus or ball for swallowing. The
tongue, teeth and saliva work together to start digestion and aid swallowing.

Teeth chop and grind food, breaking the food down into pieces small enough to be digested and
increasing the surface area over which the digestive enzymes in saliva can act.
Food is then swallowed and passes into the pharynx, or throat. When we swallow, passages to the
lungs (windpipe) and the nasal cavity are automatically closed, and the food goes into the esophagus –
a muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach. Food is propelled through the esophagus
and into the stomach by means of muscular contractions called peristalsis. At the bottom of the
esophagus, just before the opening to the stomach is a ring-shaped muscle known as the lower
esophageal sphincter (LES). This muscle relaxes (opens) to let food into the stomach and then tightens
(closes) to prevent regurgitation. If the LES malfunctions and allows food in the stomach to re-enter
the esophagus, it may cause a condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), characterised
by heartburn and regurgitation.

The Stomach

A large pouch with strong muscular walls, the stomach serves as a temporary holding station and
food-processor for the chewed and swallowed food. It has the ability to expand or contract depending
upon the amount of food it contains. The stomach aids digestion in two ways. Its strong muscular walls
churn the food into chyme – a semi-fluid mixture resembling porridge – while glands within the walls
secrete gastric juice – a blend of hydrochloric acid and various digestive enzymes – that helps to digest
foods like protein, fats, a few carbohydrates and alcohol. To prevent the stomach from digesting
itself(!) its walls are lined with a membrane called mucosa which secretes a protective slimy substance
called mucus. Liquids pass through the stomach in a matter of minutes, while solid food can remain in
the stomach for up to 5 hours. Chyme slowly exits the stomach and passes into the small intestine.
The Small Intestine

Approximately 17 feet in length, the small intestine is a coiled tube made up of three sections – the
duodenum, jejunum and ileum. As the semi-digested food (chyme) enters the duodenum from the
stomach, the duodenal lining releases intestinal hormones that stimulate the gallbladder and pancreas
to release special digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) which help to further break down food
molecules in the chyme. It is in the small intestine that most nutrients are digested and absorbed,
although different nutrients are absorbed at different speeds.

Typically carbs are digested most rapidly, followed by proteins and finally fats. Micronutrients (vitamins
and minerals) consist of molecules tiny enough for the body to absorb without breaking them down
first, but water soluble vitamins are absorbed faster than fat soluble ones. The duodenum and jejunum
is where the chyme is broken down, while the ileum is responsible for absorbing nutrients into the
bloodstream. The absorbed nutrients pass through the bloodstream to the liver where they are
processed and either stored or distributed to other parts of the body.

After every useful, digestible ingredient other than water has been wrung out of the chyme, the
remaining “waste” passes into the large intestine.
CLICK HERE TO READ MORE ON DIGESTION…